LITTLE ROCK - A skunk found in west Little Rock, off Highway 10/Cantrell Road, has tested positive for rabies, making it the first rabid skunk found south of the Arkansas River in Pulaski County in more than 30 years.
So far in 2013, six rabid skunks from north Pulaski County, in or north of the Maumelle community, have tested positive for rabies by the Arkansas Department of Health. This is the first year rabies has been seen in land animals, such as skunks, in this county since 1980. Most years Pulaski County has at least one rabid bat, and it has had two this year, but skunks are more likely than bats to pass rabies on to domestic animals in Arkansas.
According to Susan Weinstein, DVM, state public health veterinarian, any skunk seen out during the day, or getting into a fenced yard or pen with a dog, is very likely rabid and should be avoided and reported to local authorities. "Fences and pens aren't guaranteed protection from rabid skunks, so we want the public to be aware and protect their dogs, cats, horses, and livestock with rabies vaccinations. This skunk entered the dog's fenced yard and most likely was killed by the dog.
"This is a reminder to anyone who has pets to make sure they are current on their vaccinations," Weinstein added.
All dogs and cats in Arkansas are required by state law to be vaccinated against rabies by a licensed veterinarian. This protects the animal, and acts as a barrier between the wildlife exposures of rabies and people since pets are more likely to be exposed to a rabid skunk directly than people. Any animal given rabies vaccine by an owner with an over-the-counter product cannot be counted as vaccinated as there is no assurance the vaccine was stored or given properly. There is also usually no documentation of a date when the vaccine was given.
The rabies virus attacks the brain and spinal cord and is a fatal disease. The virus lives in the saliva (spit) and nervous tissues of infected animals and is spread when they bite or scratch.
The virus also may be spread if saliva from an infected animal touches broken skin, open wounds or the lining of the mouth, eyes or nose. It is most often seen in animals such as skunks and bats. Cats, dogs, ferrets and livestock can also develop rabies, especially if they are not vaccinated.
The first sign of rabies in an animal is usually a change in behavior. Rabid animals may attack people or other animals for no reason, or they may lose their fear of people and seem unnaturally friendly. Staggering, convulsions, choking, frothing at the mouth and paralysis are often present. Skunks may be seen out in daylight, which is an unusual behavior for them, or they may get into a dog pen or under a house. Many animals have a marked change in voice pitch, such as a muted or off-key tone. An animal usually dies within one week of demonstrating signs of rabies. Not all rabid animals act in these ways, however, so you should avoid all wild animals-especially skunks, bats and stray cats and dogs.
So far in 2013, the state has had 134 rabid animals (104 skunks, 24 bats, 2 cats, 2 dogs, one cow, and one horse) test positive for rabies. Most years, the Public Health Lab tests around 1,000 animals for rabies and averages 50 positive cases.
If you think you have become exposed to an animal with rabies, wash your wound thoroughly with soap and water and seek medical attention immediately. Contact your physician immediately and report the incident. The animal in question should be captured, if possible, without damaging its head or risking further exposure.
If an apparently healthy, domesticated dog or cat bites a person, it must be captured, confined and observed daily for 10 days following the bite. If the animal remains healthy during this period of time, it did not transmit rabies at the time of the bite. The brain tissue of all wild animals must be tested for rabies if human exposure has occurred.
How can you protect yourself from rabies?
• Be sure dogs, cats and ferrets are up-to-date on their rabies vaccinations
• Do not feed, touch or adopt wild animals
• Keep family pets indoors at night
• Bat-proof your home or summer camp in the fall or winter (The majority of human rabies cases are caused by bat bites.)
• Encourage children to immediately tell an adult if any animal bites them
• Teach children to avoid wildlife, strays and all other animals they do not know well
Report all animal bites or contact with wild animals to the nearest local health unit. Do not let any animal escape that has possibly exposed someone to rabies. Depending on the species, an animal can be observed or tested for rabies in order to avoid the need for rabies treatment. For more information, call the Pulaski County Health Units at: Jacksonville, 501-982-7477; North Little Rock, 501-791-8551; Pulaski Central, 501-280-3100; SW Little Rock, 501-565-931, OR Susan Weinstein, DVM, state public health veterinarian, at (501) 280-4136.